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With goods other than gold, silver and money; goods intended for trade from household goods, mites, animal species, agricultural products, dresses and similar securities and real estates. The provision of houses, shops, lands, fields, gardens and similar mites acquired by the owner for the purpose of selling and making profit is like the provision of commercial goods. Such mites are subject to zakah, just like merchandise.
However, zakah is not required from the home, the office, warehouse, office and the facilities it uses for the house, which is allocated to the owner or a relative and does not bring rent and similar income.
1. Conditions of Receiving Zakat from Trade Goods:
a) Trade Goods Reaching the Quorum: At the beginning of the year, the value of at least 560 grams of silver or 80 grams of gold for trade goods is based at the end of the year. According to these assets, zakat is given.
b) One Year Over Commercial Goods: It is obligatory that a year has passed since the value of the trade goods. It is not necessary for the year to pass over the property itself. According to Hanafis and Malikis, the valid and relevant year is the beginning and the end of the year, not the middle. If a person has a quorum at the beginning of the year and this property decreases during the year, then it is necessary to give zakat from this property if it reaches the quorum again at the end of the year.
c) Intent to Trade at the Time of Purchase: When purchasing trade goods, it is necessary to intend to trade with them. If the intention is after having these goods, the intention should be close to the business of trade. Unless there is a verb such as presenting for sale, advertising for sale or authorizing someone else for sale, a good will not be transformed into a commodity.
If a commodity that was not originally purchased for trading purposes, such as a plot, some items, carpets or some grain is stored for future sale, this is not a commodity. That’s why it is not necessary to spend a year with this. Someone can grow a real estate on the edge of the city, grow agricultural products or store warehouses, etc. If it is rented to be used for, this place is subject to zakir over income. However, after entering the municipal zoning area and parceling, it turns into commodity from the date it is offered for sale and is subject to an intelligence of forty on its value.
In summary, in order for something to be considered as a commodity and zakat is required from it; It is imperative that the commodity reaches the quorum, a year has passed, and that commerce has been initiated in conjunction with the intention, and that the goods have to be suitable for the intent of trade.
2. Calculation of Zakah from Trade Goods:
When a year has passed over the trade item, the quota is determined by choosing the most beneficial for those in need over gold or silver. In determining the boundary of wealth, with the exception of basic necessities, according to the preferred opinion, the person deducts one year’s expenses and debts of himself and those he is obliged to look after. If the remaining cash or commodity reaches the quorum and a year has passed, they will be added to each other and subject to an intelligence in forty. (Ibn Humam, Fethu’l Kadir, C.1, Shf. 528)
The zakah of the commodity can be given in forty-one, or forty-one in the value of the commodity. The zakat obligation has the right to choose in this regard. Because commodity is a commodity that zakah is obligatory. Since zakah can be given in gold, silver, animal or agricultural products from its own kind, it is permissible to give zakat from their own kind.
Profits obtained during the year from trade and non-commercial means such as offspring, inheritance and donation, born from animals, are added to the capital. At the end of the year, these are evaluated as a whole and zakat is calculated. However, additions that will occur after the year is not added to the original product.